Pengujian Efek Pembingkaian Sebagai Determinan Eskalasi Komitmen Dalam Keputusan Investasi : Dampak Dari Pengalaman Kerja
Prior studies have shown that the framing effect is one of determinant in explaining decisions to escalate commitment to failing projects. Such studies, however, have not considered whether experience moderates the framing effect on escalation of commitment. This study reports the results of an experiment in which the effect of decision frame of investment performance with negative feedback informatian on judgment to continue project of experienced subjects is compared to inexperienced subjects. Forty six Indonesian experienced managers and forty seven accounting students participated in this experiment. Two conditions based on prospect theory (negative framing and positive framing) manipulated, and two conditions of business experience, crossed between subjects. The experiment reaffirms that decision frame does not have effect on judgment of experienced subject but those frame indeed have effect on judgment to continue project of inexperienced subjects. This result suggest that framing effect as drawn from prospect theory is one of explanatory power of escalation of commitment, but it can not generalized to real-world business settings.
Key words: escalation of commitment, framing effect, prospect theory, experience
Rational decision making, based on economic theory, assume that corporate managers seeking to maximize corporate profits. Managers should invest in projects that provide the greatest benefits for the company and periodically assess the economic performance of the projects. They should continue projects that benefit and to avoid losses, managers have to stop projects that are not profitable. In making these considerations managers should ignore the sunk cost that has occurred.
However, empirical evidence has been obtained shows that managers who initiate a project that became unprofitable even more inclined to continue the project rather than managers who did not start the project (Staw, 1976, 1981). The behavior of decision makers is often referred to as escalation of commitment. Escalation of commitment refers to the tendency by the decision makers to persist or escalate commitment to a failing course of action (Brockner, 1992). Bazerman (1994) defines escalation as an irrational (nonrational Escalation of commitment) is the degree to which individuals escalating commitment to specific actions performed prior to a single point through a rational decision making model. Individuals or managers generally have difficulty in separating the decisions taken previously by the decision relating to the future. As a consequence, individuals will tend to bias the decision because of the actions in the past and have a tendency to escalate commitment, especially when receiving negative feedback (Bazerman, 1994).
Simposium Nasional Akuntansi 11