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Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Kecemasan Berkomputer (Computer Anxiety) Dan Karakteristik Tipe Kepribadian Pada Mahasiswa Akuntansi

KECEMASAN BERKOMPUTER (COMPUTER ANXIETY) DAN KARAKTERISTIK TIPE KEPRIBADIAN PADA MAHASISWA AKUNTANSI

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research was examining the personality type and other factors such as gender and GPA that may contribute to computer anxiety among accounting students. The following questions guided this investigation: Does a relationship exist between computer anxiety and accounting student’s personality type? Does a relationship exist between accounting students’ gender, GPA and their computer anxiety?
Data for this study consisted of surveying accounting students of Economics and Business Faculty of Gadjah Mada University. One hundred and thirty-nine (139) surveys were distributed. One hundred and thirty-nine (139) instruments were returned, representing a response rate of one hundred (100%) percent; fourteen participants returned incomplete instruments which could not be used in this study.
Conclusions of this study are: computer anxiety does exist among accounting students; there is significant relationship for those students who were classified as sensing-intuitive and thinking-feeling and computerphobia; accounting students’ gender and GPA don’t influence their computer anxiety.

Keywords: computer anxiety, personality type, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator






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Jurnal Simposium Nasional Akuntasi XI (SNA 11)



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PENGARUH EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION, ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY, DAN CHANNEL RICHNESS TERHADAP SIKAP INDIVIDU ATAS PERILAKU SHARING KNOWLEDGE

PENGARUH EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION, ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY, DAN CHANNEL RICHNESS TERHADAP SIKAP INDIVIDU ATAS PERILAKU SHARING KNOWLEDGE

Eliada Herwiyanti
Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Abstract

In this new era of technology, information can be obtains easily, and can be share in many situations. The usefulness of information can improve and applied in very flexible terms. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of extrinsic motivation, absorptive capacity, and channel richness to sharing knowledge attitude. All of variables are measure with 5 Likert’s Scale, that adopted from Kwok and Gao (2006) work’s. This research is using purposive sampling method to choose the sample. From 100 questionnaires that had been gather from information technology students in Jakarta, only 72 that could be include to the observation.

The result using multiple regression equation indicate that all of the hypotheses are can not reject. Additional test with independent samples test show that there are no significant different among male and female to extrinsic motivation, absorptive capacity, and sharing knowledge attitude, only channel richness variable that show significant.


Keywords: extrinsic motivation, absorptive capacity, channel richness, sharing knowledge.





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Jurnal Simposium Nasional Akuntasi XI (SNA 11)



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Friday, December 10, 2010

The long-run performance of initial public offerings: comparison between shari’ah and non shari’ah-based firms

The long-run performance of initial public offerings:
comparison between shari’ah and non shari’ah-based firms

Abstract

This paper empirically investigates the difference of the performance between shariah-based and non shariah-based firms that listed on the Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX) during the period July 2001 to December 2005. The results show that, when using equally-weighted cumulative abnormal return (EW-CAR) and equally-weighted buy-and-hold abnormal return (EW-BHAR), the long-run performance of IPOs return between shariah and non shariah firms are significantly different. However, the significance disappears when the returns are calculated with value-weighted cumulative abnormal return (VW-CAR) and value-weighted buy-and-hold abnormal return (VW-BHAR). Further, the results show that shariah-based firms outperform the market in almost every month for two years, except month 7 and 10 when using VW-CAR. However, non shariah-based firms underperform in almost each month.

Key words: long-run performance, IPO, shari’ah, equally-weighted, value-weighted.

JEL Classification: G1.

1. Introduction
In recent years, the academic community has closely examined and intensely debated the performance of IPOs, particularly in the long-run. The analysis of the long-run returns is directed towards a methodological approach. Thus, Barber and Lyon (1997), Kothari and Warner (1997), Brav and Gompers (1997), Fama (1998), Lyon, Barber and Tsai (1999), Loughran and Ritter (2000), Gompers and Lerner (2003), Ang, Gu, and Hochberg (2005), and Ahmad-Zaluki, Campbell, and Goodacre (2007) have argued that the method of performance measurement influences both the magnitude of the abnormal returns as well as the size and power of the statistical test.

Our research sheds additional light on the performance of IPOs by empirically examining the long-run performance of shariah-based IPOs. We therefore add to the growing body of evidence on the long-run performance of new issuers. The study of IPOs in the Islamic capital market is of interest because IPOs in Islamic capital market are smaller than those launched in non Islamic capital market. Furthermore, the characteristics of shariah-based firms are different from the characteristics of non shariah-based firms. We thus hope to shed light on whether the characteristics and the institutional setting of shariah-based firms might affect IPO performance. This research makes two distinct contributions to the literature concerning the long-run performance of IPOs. First, we use shariah-based and non shariah-based firms as sample. Second, we use two different measures to calculate the abnormal return : cumulative abnormal returns and buy-and-hold abnormal returns.

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In section 2, we provide a brief literature review concerning the long run share price performance of IPOs. Section 3 describes the methodology of this paper. Section 4 describes the results. And section 5 describes the conclusion and remarks for the future research.




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Jurnal Simposium Nasional Akuntasi XI (SNA 11)



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Does Investor Protection Prevent Earnings Management Activity Through Real Activity Manipulation?

Does Investor Protection Prevent Earnings Management Activity Through Real Activity Manipulation?

Asian Comparison


Abstract

This paper examines systematic differences in earnings management through real activity manipulation across 6 Asia countries. Contrary with Leuz (2003) finding that earnings management through accrual manipulation is lower in economies with high investor protection than in low investor protection. We predict that in economies with high investor protection, manager prefer to manage earnings through real activity manipulation rather than through accrual manipulation. Because accrual manipulation is more likely to draw auditor or regulator scrutiny than real decisions about pricing and production. Our findings are consistent with our prediction.
Keyword: earnings management, real activity manipulation, investor protection

INTRODUCTION
Legal systems protect investors by conferring on them rights to discipline insiders (e.g., to replace managers), as well as by enforcing contracts designed to limit insiders’ private control benefits (e.g., La Porta et al., 1998; Nenova, 2000; Claessens et al., 2002; Dyck and Zingales, 2002).2 As a result, legal systems that effectively protect outside investors reduce insiders’ need to conceal their activities. Investor protection as a key institutional factor affecting corporate policy choices (see Shleifer and Vishny, 1997; La Porta et al., 2000), we focus on investor protection as a significant determinant of earnings management activity. Leuz (2003) find: earnings management is more pervasive in countries where the legal protection of outside investors is weak, because in these countries insiders enjoy greater private control benefits and hence have stronger incentives to manipulate firm performance. Leuz measure earnings management with accrual manipulation, but beside manage earnings through accrual management, manager also can manage earnings through other method such as real activity manipulation and classification shifting. Accrual manipulation is more likely to draw auditor scrutiny than real decision. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate does investor protection reduce effectively earnings management through real activity manipulation.





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Jurnal Simposium Nasional Akuntasi XI (SNA 11)



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Earnings And Cash Flow Performances Surrounding IPO

Earnings And Cash Flow Performances Surrounding Ipo

Abstract

Initial public offerings (IPOs) offer a fruitful area to be explored given the existence of asymmetric information among various parties interested in the IPO. This study attempts to examine whether there is significant increase in earnings level prior to the offering to be interpreted as the existence of earnings management. The behaviour of cash flow from operation is also examined.

A sample of 35 Indonesian IPOs that made public during 2002-2005 periods was examined. The t-test for mean difference was performed to test whether earnings differences persist. The findings show that earnings level tends increase in the year closes to the IPO date, but decrease in the next two year after that. The behaviour of cash flow from operating activities is almost similar. However, this study is unable to state that earnings management is strongly evidenced in Indonesian IPO setting.

Keywords: IPOs, prospectus, earnings and cash flow performance


EARNINGS AND CASH FLOW PERFORMANCES SURROUNDING IPO

1. Introduction
This study examines earnings management of Indonesian initial public offerings (IPO). Companies offering shares publicly for listing are required by the securities law to meet certain financial and operating criteria. Because of the major impact of the offering prices on their private wealth and the explicit use of accounting numbers, particularly accounting earnings, the managers and the major stockholders of IPO firms have the incentives to manage earnings numbers to maximize their private wealth.

According to Healy and Wahlen (1999: 368), earnings management occurs "when managers use judgment in financial reporting and in structuring transactions to alter financial reports to either mislead some stakeholders about the underlying economic performance of the company or to influence contractual outcomes that depend on reported accounting numbers". We interpret this broad definition as including earnings management in IPO.
Levitt (1998), former chairman of United States’ capital market regulator, has asserted that aggressive earnings management has been of concern to regulators for several years and that concern has only intensified following evidence of improper accounting practices by Enron, WorldCom, and some other major corporations. Thus, a better understanding of how earnings management occurs could help (1) regulators and standard setters identify the areas most in need of regulatory change; (2) auditors evaluate and report on their clients' quality of earnings, and train novice auditors about earnings management; (3) CEOs, CFOs, audit committees, and investors focus attention on those areas of the financial statements where they should be most skeptical; (4) managers and audit committees anticipate the transactions that investors will view most skeptically; (5) educators teach students about earnings management; and (6) researchers focus their analyses on areas of high-earnings-management activity.







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Jurnal Simposium Nasional Akuntasi XI (SNA 11)



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